Phenylpiracetam ((RS)-2-(2-OXO-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-y1) acetamide), was first developed unofficially under the name Carphedon, at the institute of cosmic medicine in Russia. The drug was then provided to the military and cosmonauts in the country in a bid to increase their work efficiency. It was synthesized through a process of adding a phenyl group to the well known nootropic, piracetam.
The drug can exist in two different enantiomeric forms. The R-enantiomer has been shown to be effective as an anti- depressant and for improving memory. In Europe, it has been patented as a muscle relaxant, locomotor activity modular, analgesic, antidepressant and stress protective agent.
Phenylpiracetam is unscheduled in the United States and is used as a nootropic supplement. In 1997, the drug was illegally used by athletes. It was banned in certain areas of athletics such as figure skating due to the mental and physical advantages it provides. The drug was later banned in the sports arena due to its ability to increase tolerance and stamina. Phenylpiracetam is more potent (30 to 60 times more potent than piracetam) and readily bioavailable when taken orally as compared to any other racetam.
Phenylpiracetam is used for the treatment of a number of cognitive impairment and mental disorders. In Russia, it is soled under the name Phenotropil and is also used for the physical functioning among Russian patients. It is also used to increase a patient’s tolerance to stress and cold. Phenylpiracetam is also a powerful mental stimulant.
A number of studies have also shown the drug to help in:
- Memory Improvement
- Increased Focus
- Decrease in Depression
- Improving circulation to lower limbs.
- Reducing lesions in cerebral pathways
Administration of the drug also results to the development of antibodies following antigen introduction, this indicates immunostimuliruyuschie properties. However, it also contributes to the development of the immediate type allergic inflammatory changes (hypersensitivity) of reactions on the skin caused by foreign proteins.
The metabolic transformation of phenylpiracetam involves phenyl hydroxylation as well as the heterocyclic ring following oral administration. Two of the metabolites identified include: